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Monday, July 16, 2018

Starting in 2015, Dussutour and her team obtained samples of slime molds from colleagues at Hakodate University in Japan and tested their ability to habituate. The researchers set up pieces of slime mold in the lab and placed dishes of oatmeal, one of the organism’s favorite foods, a short distance away. To reach the oatmeal, the slime molds had to grow across gelatin bridges laced with either caffeine or quinine, harmless but bitter chemicals that the organisms are known to avoid.

“In the first experiment, the slime molds took 10 hours to cross the bridge and they really tried not to touch it,” Dussutour said. After two days, the slime molds began to ignore the bitter substance, and after six days each group stopped responding to the deterrent .

The habituation that the slime molds had learned was specific to the substance: Slime molds that had habituated to caffeine were still reluctant to cross a bridge containing quinine, and vice versa. This showed that the organisms had learned to recognize a particular stimulus and to adjust their response to it, and not to push across bridges indiscriminately.

Slime molds are highly efficient at exploring their environment and making use of the resources they find there. Researchers have harnessed this ability to solve mazes and other problems under controlled conditions.

Finally, the scientists let the slime molds rest for two days in situations where they were exposed to neither quinine nor caffeine, and then tested them with the noxious bridges again. “We saw that they recover—as they show avoidance again,” Dussutour said. The slime molds had gone back to their original behavior.

Of course, organisms can adapt to environmental changes in ways that don’t necessarily imply learning. But Dussutour’s work suggests that the slime molds can sometimes pick up these behaviors through a form of communication, not just through experience. In Womens Cotton Slub Jersey TShirt Proenza Schouler Shop Classic Affordable Online H4gJ7D8sC
, her team showed that “naïve,” non-habituated slime molds can directly acquire a learned behavior from habituated ones via cell fusion.

Unlike complex multicellular organisms, slime molds can be cut into many pieces; once they’re put back together, they fuse and make a single giant slime mold, with veinlike tubes filled with fast-flowing cytoplasm forming between pieces as they connect. Dussutour cut her slime molds into more than 4,000 pieces and trained half of them with salt—another substance that the organisms dislike, though not as strongly as quinine and caffeine. The team fused the assorted pieces in various combinations, mixing slime molds habituated to salt with non-habituated ones. They then tested the new entities.

“We showed that when there was one habituated slime mold in the entity that we were forming, the entity was showing habituation,” she said. “So one slime mold would transfer this habituated response to the other.” The researchers then separated the different molds again after three hours—the time it took for all the veins of cytoplasm to form properly—and both parts still showed habituation. The organism had learned.

Today, books contain less decoration and the readers can concentrate on what they are reading. He noted, it takes courage to leave out ornament and let the typography stand on its merits. Michael Russem’s full presentation can be read on his website .

Text pulled from John Dunlap’s broadside of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776, and Benjamin Towne’s Pennsylvania Evening Post, July 6, 1776. (Wikimedia Commons)

Most Americans can quote the beginning of the Declaration of Independence—“When in the course of human events…” But not everyone who was notified of the Declaration soon after its adoption on July 4,1776got exactly the same version. Cold Shoulder Sequin Detail Tulle Maxi Dress With Ruffle Detail Vintage rose Maya Cheap Wide Range Of Discount Order Cheap Price Discount Authentic Free Shipping Countdown Package Clearance New Styles Zq7yjQH1
of the Declaration Resources Project at Harvard University reported on analyses of the known broadside editions and newspaper reports of the Declaration published in July and August 1776.

The variations could be in spelling and even word choice, but more frequently in capitalization and punctuation. They started with the first word and continued throughout the various versions. The first word appeared in the first broadside printed by John Dunlap as [W]HEN with no punctuation, and in the first newspaper edition printed by Benjamin Towne as [W]HEN with a comma following. The bare minimum of capitalization was in the Maryland Gazette : of words such as God, Great Britain, English, Indian, British, etc. for less than 10 words total. By comparison, Dunlap’s Pennsylvania Packet had over 50 capitalized words, and over 300 words were capitalized in Dunlap’s broadside.

The text of the Declaration of Independence spread through the newly United States over the course of a few weeks, with newspaper editions first appearing as follows: in Pennsylvania, July 6; Maryland, July 9; New York, July 10; Connecticut, July 12; Rhode Island, July 13; Massachusetts, July 16; Virginia, July 20; and South Carolina, August 2 (there are no known newspaper editions from New Jersey, Delaware, North Carolina, or Georgia). The Declaration was first published in non-English form in the Pennsylvanischer Staatbote in Philadelphia on July 9, and in book form by Robert Bell in Philadelphia on July 8.

These variations among these early editions of the Declaration of Independence are significant because of the sheer number of 1776 printings; of all the known broadside, newspaper, and book editions of the Declaration produced from 1776-1800, nearly half were produced in July and August 1776.

Some of the early broadside printings of the Declaration included state resolutions about the approbation, distribution, and public reading of the Declaration. In Massachusetts, for example, The Council adopted the following on July 17, 1776: “ORDERED, that the Declaration of Independence be printed ; and a Copy sent to the ministers of each parish, of every Denomination, within this STATE ; and they severally be required to read the same to their respective Congregations, as soon as divine Service is ended, in the Afternoon, on the first Lord’s-Day after they shall have received it : –And after such publication thereof, to deliver the said declaration to the Clerks of their several Towns or Districts ; who are hereby required to record the same in their respective Town, or District Books, there to remain as a perpetual MEMORIAL thereof.”

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CSULB Home Ceremony Schedule
Schedule of Ceremonies

Tuesday, May 22,2018

9:00 a.m. – Engineering

Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering Construction Engineering Management, Computer Engineering Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Aerospace Engineering

1:00 p.m. – Natural Sciences Mathematics

Biological Sciences, Chemistry Biochemistry, Environmental Science Policy, Geological Sciences, Mathematics Statistics, Physics Astronomy, Science Education

5:00 p.m. – Education

Educational Leadership, Advanced Studies in Education Counseling, Teacher Education, Credentials, Liberal Studies

9:00 a.m. – Liberal Arts, Ceremony 1

Asian Asian American Studies, American Indian Studies, American Studies, Anthropology, Communication Studies, Economics, Global Logistics, History, International Studies, Jewish Studies, Linguistics, Political Science, Sociology, Women's, Gender, Sexuality Studies

2:00 p.m. – Liberal Arts, Ceremony 2

Africana Studies, Chicano Latino Studies, Comparative World Literature Classics, English, Environmental Science Policy, Geography, Human Development, Journalism Public Relations, Liberal Arts, Philosophy, Psychology, Religious Studies, Romance, German, Russian Languages Literatures

9:00 a.m. – Health Human Services, Ceremony 1

Criminology, Criminal Justice Emergency Management, Family Consumer Sciences, Recreation Leisure Studies, Nursing, Speech-Language Pathology

2:00 p.m. – Health Human Services, Ceremony 2

Health Care Administration, Health Science, Kinesiology, Physical Therapy, Public Policy Administration, Social Work

9:00 a.m. – Business Administration

Accountancy, Finance, Information Systems, International Business, Management Human Resources Management, Marketing

2:00 p.m. – Arts

School of Art, Department of Dance, Department of Design, Department of Film Electronic Arts, Bob Cole Conservatory of Music, Department of Theatre Arts

Please contact the College Dean's office for more information.

Each student will receive 8 tickets. Tickets will be available for graduates to pick up from the Bookstore during cap and gown distribution. Eachperson attending the ceremony will need a ticket: including children. If you plan on bringing small children, it is recommended that you view the ceremony in the live-streaming room, which will not require tickets.


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